Under the terms of the peace agreement, a Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was created and run by the SPLM with a promise that a referendum would be held on independence in 2011. October 12, 2016, Failing South Sudan: First as Tragedy, Then as Farce, William Davidson [179] However, the talks collapsed as both sides boycotted the talks,[180] and by 16 June, the ceasefire was reported to have been violated. Kiir is an ethnic Dinka, while Machar is an ethnic Nuer. He accused Kiir of inciting ethnic tensions to achieve his ends. As the first step toward ending the civil war, Machar returned to Juba in April 2016 and was once again sworn in as vice president, after spending more than two years outside of the country. South Sudan’s War on Women. [162], Only a few days later,[164] the rebels accused that a government takeover of Leer was a deliberate attempt to sabotage the second round of talks that were to start later in February. Refugees are allowed to work and travel and families get a 30-metre by 30-metre plot of land to build a home with additional space for farming. [53][54] Machar denied trying to start a coup and fled to lead the SPLM – in opposition (SPLM-IO). [201] There were Dinka and Nuer clans professing loyalty to Kiir and Dinka and Nuer clans professing loyalty to Machar. South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir (L), Sudan’s President Omar al-Bashir (2L), Somalia’s President Mohammad Abdullahi Mohammad (R), and Egypt’s Prime Minister Mostafa Madbouli (2R) look on after offering flowers at John Garang Mausoleum during a peace ceremony in Juba, South Sudan on October 31, 2018. [119] Many of these reports have come from the hundreds of foreign oil company employees gathered at the airport to leave. [72], In 2010, after a disputed election, George Athor led the South Sudan Democratic Movement in rebellion against the government. Australian Strategic Policy Institute CFR Blog, “Africa in Transition” Task Force Program, About [103], Machar spoke for the first time since the crisis began on 18 December in which he said he was not aware of any coup attempt, but instead blamed Kiir for fabricating such allegations of a coup in order to settle political scores and target political opponents. Washington Post [200] The British journalist Peter Martell wrote the war had started out as a conflict within the elite over control of the oil revenue, but had "evolved into anarchy, opportunism, and revenge" as the violence had acquired a momentum of its own with multiple clan leaders raising their own militias to battle over control of the cattle herds and land, struggles fought with little reference to either Kiir or Machar. This was especially difficult in the South, where until the 1920s, government consisted largely of punitive military expeditions and periods of exceptional violence. The following day, the U.S. Department of Treasury imposed sanctions on three individuals for their alleged roles in the South Sudanese civil war. [344], Military situation in South Sudan on 22 March 2020, Compromise Peace Agreement and second Juba clashes (2015–2016), Rebel infighting and splits among ruling Dinka (2016–2017). One civilian was killed and dozens of civilians were wounded in that attack. Violence erupted in July 2016 after an attack outside of where President Kiir and Riek Machar were meeting in Juba. & In 2017 and 2018, a series of cease-fires were negotiated and subsequently violated between the two sides and other factions. [56] The United Nations has peacekeepers in the country as part of the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). Here are the Critical Next Steps, Matthew Hauenstein and Madhav Joshi Fighting broke out in Pariang on 20 December, when some SPLA troops defected to the rebels. Rebel forces claimed to have recaptured Malakal from the army, while army forces claimed to have held the city after heavy fighting. [214] President Salva Kiir and first Vice-President Riek Machar ordered a ceasefire after days of intense violence. Associated Press [158] Uganda announced they had joined the fight in January[159] after previously denying it,[160] saying the troops were to only to evacuate Ugandan nationals. U.S. Institute of Peace Models for Negotiating an Exit Plan for Entrenched Leadership in South Sudan, Informal armies: community defence groups in South Sudan’s civil war, Weapons of Mass Corruption: How corruption in South Sudan’s military undermines the world’s newest country. The South Sudanese Sudan Tribune reported clashes breaking out in the Munuki neighbourhood[92] late on 14 December in Juba between members of the presidential guard. [68] The country's economy has also been devastated. January 8, 2018, South Sudan Army Makes Push Against Rebels as Peace Talks Begin, Jason Patinkin and Jina Moore American church … October 20, 2019. More than 4 million people have been displaced, with about 1.8 million internally displaced and about 2.5 million having fled to neighboring countries, especially Kenya, Sudan, and Uganda. In November 2014, the International Crisis Group estimated the death toll could be between 50,000 and 100,000. [186] The aircraft were flown by Hungarian mercenaries with one of the mercenaries, Tibor Czingali, posting photographs on his Facebook account of bullet holes in his jet. [182] The talks later collapsed and fighting broke out in March. [298] In January 2020, the Community of Sant'Egidio mediated a Rome Peace Declaration between the SSOMA and the South Sudanese government. [297] In August 2019, three rebel groups who were not signed up to the peace agreement - that of Cirillo's, whose rebel group was now known as South Sudan National Democratic Alliance (SSNDA), SS-UF of Paul Malong and the Real Sudan People's Liberation Movement (R- SPLM) of Pagan Amum, resolved to unite their activities under “United South Sudanese Opposition Movements” (SSOMA). Campus, Intergovernmental Authority on Development. Reuters December 19, 2017, Kevin Sieff [355] By March 2016, after more than two years of fighting, some aid workers and officials who did not want to speak on the record said the true figure might be as high as 300,000. "[86][87] In 2011, there was fighting between the Murle and the Lou Nuer, mostly over raiding cattle and abducting children to raise as their own. [85] During the second war of independence from the Sudan, the government in Khartoum beginning in 1984 followed a consciously policy of "divide and rule" by arming young men with assault rifles and ammunition who were encouraged to engage in unlimited violence on cattle raids, hoping the resulting ethnic violence would cause so much disunity as to end the rebellion. May 25, 2016, Another Hollow Peace Deal Signed in South Sudan, Adam Valavanis May 18, 2018, A Who's Who in South Sudan's Splintering Civil War, Stefani Glinski In May 2017, Kiir reduced the power of the chief of staff position[271] and fired its powerful Dinka nationalist Malong Awan and replaced him with General James Ajongo Mawut, who is not a Dinka but a Luo. Poorly armed and ill-or… South Sudanball Sudanese Civil Wars were a series of wars and conflicts between the former british colony of Sudanball, and his son South Sudanball. November 2018, What are the Prospects for South Sudan’s New Peace Agreement? SSNDA and SSOMA (until Jan. 2020) During the six years period of autonomy, the desire for independence kept in-fighting within the SPLM in check, but disputes arose over how to share the oil revenues. Ugandan troops were deployed to fight alongside the South Sudanese government. The breakdown of the initial appeasement later led to a reigniting of the north-south conflict during the Second Sudanese Civil War, which lasted from 1983 to 2005. After independence in 1956, the following half century included a mix of national elections, constitutions, coalition governments, coups d'état, involvement in the Chadian Civil War (2005–2010), islamisation under the influence of Hassan al-Turabi (1989–1999) and the secession of South Sudan (2011). [257], An additional dimension of the conflict became the fighting between the opposition loyal to Machar and those supporting Taban Deng, largely within the Nuer majority former state of Unity. 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